READ: Conservatives Release Dissenting Report - The Unjust Transition: An Unnecessary Risk to Workers & Communities

Conservative Party of Canada Dissenting Report: Creating a Fair and Equitable Canadian Energy Transformation

Standing Committee on Natural Resources

The Liberal Just Transition plan is a dangerous government-mandated threat to kill 170,000 direct Canadian jobs, displace 450,000 workers directly and indirectly working in the energy sector, and risk the livelihoods of 2.7 million Canadian workers, negatively and disproportionately impact sectors, occupations and regions, disproportionately harm different provinces and communities, and drive up energy costs, while undermining energy security, for all Canadians.[1]

Environmental stewardship must be addressed with realistic, concrete, and effective measures. But this final report from the Natural Resources Committee ignores global realities of growing energy demand, scarcity and security, Canada’s place and potential as a natural resource exporter, and targets Canada’s oil and gas sector to be “transitioned” and shut down, rather than expanded and exported to help lower global emissions.

Conservatives are unable to reconcile the final report’s recommendations with the realities of Canada’s energy sector, and oppose the damaging direction of the current Liberal government, expressed in this report.

The reality is the world will continue to need and use oil and gas for decades to come, and major polluters like China and India, generate the vast majority of global emissions – and continue to fire up new coal plants (data from 2022).

Conservatives recognize that Canada’s oil and gas sector is the top private sector industry, top exporter, and top investor in clean tech in the Canadian economy.[2] The sector offers a constantly innovative environmentally and socially responsible means of displacing higher-polluting alternatives globally, accelerating technology to improve environmental stewardship and reduce emissions, in Canada and around the world, offers jobs and spin off economic opportunities that benefit every region, and is the key driver behind closing the gap between the wealthy and poor in Canada, and the relatively high standard of living that Canadians enjoy compared to other countries around the world. Canadians believe that Canada should continue to produce oil and gas, and export energy products and technology, to meet the world’s ever-increasing energy demands.

This “Just Transition” committee report pursues the shutdown of Canada’s energy sector. For that reason, Conservatives are issuing this dissenting report, as Creating a Fair and Equitable Canadian Energy Transformation leaves workers and communities behind, fails to recognize the environmental and social excellence of Canada’s energy sector, ignores lessons from past failures, and believes that high risk, expensive, uncertain government-mandated transition is the solution – instead of feasible, sustainable, economically responsible, people- and sector-led transformation and innovation.

In its March 2023 release of an interim plan, after intense backlash from provincial Premiers and Canadians, the Liberal Government changed the wording on their “Just Transition” plan to “Sustainable Jobs.” In that interim plan, the Liberals attempted to defend the change, reasoning that “The term 'sustainable jobs' has been increasingly used by the Government of Canada… The term ‘sustainable jobs’ is, in our minds, one that is more inclusive and indeed more accurate for Canada than terms like ‘just transition’.”[3] However, throughout the entire duration of the study completed between April 4 and September 22, 2022, both witnesses and Liberals used the words “Just Transition”. The change to the term “Sustainable Jobs” is a blatant, cynical, evasive, political ploy to deflect and obscure the real ramifications and intentions of the anti-energy NDP-Liberal coalition plan, supported by the Bloc Quebecois, in this Committee. Besides, the millions of direct and indirect Canadian oil and gas jobs across the country are sustainable jobs.

Leaving Workers and Communities Behind

Conservatives will always prioritize workers, communities, and affordability. Witness testimony highlighted the labour landscape that must be at the core of policy decisions related to the “Just Transition”: the number of workers that will be impacted, skill leakage, the overall economic impact, the fiscal impact on all levels of government, and the repercussions on community infrastructure and development are principal among the many concerns that must be addressed.

For example, the Senior Vice President of Corporate Affairs and Chief Government Affairs Officer for ATCO, Dale Friesen,[4] suggested that the Auditor General’s report on the federal government’s Coal Transition could alleviate some of the potential concerns to workers that will be impacted by the Liberals’ “Just Transition” plans. The federal government must take into account the lessons of both the primary and secondary casualties of the off-coal transition, from employee retention and skills leakage to the cost of housing and infrastructure in remote areas as people left smaller communities, with broad direct and indirect implications.

The objectives of the intersection of Canada’s environmental, energy, industrial and economic policy must also include an evidence-based assessment of the performance and track record of Canadian oil and gas workers and proponents. Friesen reflected on the ingenuity and expertise of Canada’s energy workers, and the resource development sector overall, that can make a significant contribution to global net zero ambitions. Chief Sharleen Gale, of the First Nations Major Projects Coalition reinforced Canada’s world class standards for environmental leadership in project development.[5]  Industry representatives highlighted the Canadian oil and gas sector’s collaboration and forward thinking, investing $3 billion dollars in 2019 alone for environmental innovation[6], and the significant and ongoing progress of emissions reduction in oil sands development[7].

The President of the National Coalition of Chiefs, Dale Swampy, called the Liberal government’s “Just Transition” an unjust transition that picks winners and losers, and pointed out the billions of dollars in lost opportunities for Indigenous communities despite the global reality: “It is not realistic to think that, if Canada simply stops producing oil, other countries will stop using it.[8]” With global oil and gas demand continuing to increase, Canada should pursue the global responsibility and opportunity to leverage Canada’s resources, expertise, and technology. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers highlighted that “oil and natural gas will continue to play in global energy-producing jurisdictions.”[9] Therefore, stewarding Canadian talent for the world’s benefit will be critical to ongoing collaborative efforts, which is not an element of the federal government’s existing plan. Fostering the value of Canadian workers and expertise will require thoughtful industrial policy that mitigates social tensions and prevents economic shock.

Dale Friesen testified that as many as 450,000 workers could be displaced through the current transition plans and Lisa Stillborn from Canadian Fuels cited that 117,000 workers are involved in Canada’s L6 refineries, at the more than 90 fuel terminals and 12,000 retail sites[10]. ATCO’s written submission touched on the inevitable disproportionate regional and community impacts because “600,000 Canadians, located primarily in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador are either directly or indirectly employed in the oil and gas sector, including nearly 10,000 Indigenous people[11]”. Chief Delbert Wapass highlighted that the Indian Resource Council represents 130 First Nations that produce oil and gas or that have a direct interest in the industry[12], underlined by CAPP’s confirmation that Indigenous peoples represent 6% of the workforce[13], doubling any other sector in Canada's economy. CAPP’s Shannon Joseph cautioned that the “Just Transition” disproportionately impacts First Nations jobs “…(and) many Indigenous business owners[14]” that will face a loss of $2.4 billion annually in procurement that won’t be replaced. The Committee’s final report, Creating a Fair and Equitable Canadian Energy Transformation, gives very little attention to the Indigenous witnesses who outlined their concerns about the ramifications on their workers, community, and economic development.

Chief Delbert Wapass pointed out the detrimental impact on First Nations economic development of billions of dollars in lost revenues, royalties, and missed opportunities, that will be a consequence of the “Just Transition” aim to transition away from, ie. shut down, oil and gas in Canada. For example, industry’s Indigenous community spending in the oil sands region rose from $21 million to $32 million from 2017 to 2019, which contributed to in-kind investments and community activities[15]. The Director of the Indian Resource Council’s National Energy Business Centre of Excellence, Steve Saddleback equates the “Just Transition” with poverty, and pointed out its misguided motivation because Canada “can have that balance between economic development and environment[16]”.

Finally, the Liberal Just Transition plan will significantly reduce revenue to all levels of government, currently used for resourcing and infrastructures of local communities, and social services and programs in every part of the country – Shannon Joseph identified the current tax contribution to all levels of government of the oil and gas sector as $20 billion a year.[17] Conservatives recognize that there is no other sector currently posed to replace equivalent levels of private sector investment in the Canadian economy, or equivalent revenues of government revenue in the foreseeable future, which should concern all Canadians in every community and region.

The Failed Liberal Experiment of the Coal Transition

Canadians are right to challenge the NDP-Liberal-Bloc “Just Transition” plans and question their claims, based on past experiences.

In 2017, the Liberals accelerated the timeline for the forced shutdown of coal operations in communities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, which cost the jobs of 3,000 workers across the four provinces. The promised “Just Transition” did not materialize. Despite spending $150 million dollars, jobs were not replaced and communities were devastated, with municipal representatives worried local governments will not be able to afford to keep the water running and town services operational much longer.

Canada’s Commissioner of Environment and Sustainable Development in the Office of the Auditor General reported on the complete and utter failure of the Liberal plan:

First, it took four years after the announcement for the lead department, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), to start taking any action.

Second, NRCan didn’t actually implement a plan.  The Commissioner reported “it did not establish a governance structure that would set out the related federal roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities,” and it did not “have an implementation plan to address a transition that involves a variety of workers, geographies, and federal and other stakeholders.”[18]

Third, impacted workers were not identified in advance, and 86% of the workforce were left behind with generic, untargeted, and unhelpful programs.

Fourth, none of the recommendations of the ‘Task Force’ that was set up to give recommendations were implemented.

And finally, all of the government departments that were supposed to monitor and report on the status of activities, and measure that whether projects actually helped communities, didn’t report and couldn’t determine whether or not the $150 million in taxpayer money actually did anything.

The Liberals’ “Just Transition” for coal was a perfect and expensive failure trifecta: a failure to plan their plan, a failure to implement their plan, and a failure to measure their plan’s outcomes.

Despite supporting the concept and aims of the “Just Transition”, witnesses like Gil McGowan of the Alberta Federation of Labour, and Jamie Kirkpatrick of Blue Green Canada highlighted that the coal Task Force “required interventions of Ministries of Labour; Finance; Infrastructure and Community; Northern Affairs; Innovation, Science and Industry; Natural Resources; and Public Services and Procurement, and, of course, it was housed in Environment and Climate Change. The result was that no one was given the jobs to do, so the jobs then didn't get done.”

His testimony that “Frankly, federal departments and agencies have not established a framework to measure success, to monitor the work or to support Canadians in this transition.”[19] should be a severe and alarming caution to all Canadians about the current “Just Transition” plans, especially given the fact that there is no indication whatsoever that anything in this regard has been improved materially.

Witnesses like Roy Milne of the United Steelworkers experienced this failed transition directly, where one program was implemented, and nothing else actually happened to help workers and communities.[20] McGowan said that the coal transition’s problem was that “people didn’t want temporary handouts; they wanted another job.”[21]

The reality is that temporary handouts are all that’s really offered by the plans to shut down the economic lifeblood of many communities, like the failure and broken promises of the coal transition that is reasonably expected to be the outcome of the current “Just Transition” plan, and that funding tap runs dry just a few years later.

Left behind are dozens of communities and thousands of workers and their families, who now have to make new lives for themselves, because far away and out of touch politicians and program administrators implemented an accelerated plan to fire these hardworking Canadians, and make their communities ghost towns.

Canada’s World-Leading Industry

The Bank of Montreal reports that Canada “has the top-ranked environmental, social and governance profile, or ESG” among the world’s top 10 oil and gas producers and exporters.[22] That conclusion echoes those of other comprehensive, comparative analysis of Canada against the other major oil and gas jurisdictions for nearly two decades, by Worley Parsons and other globally renowned firms. The facts show clearly that Canadian oil and gas is produced under the most stringent regulations in the world. It makes no sense to self-inflict punishment and shut down plans on the best in class, globally.

Chief Dale Swampy of the National Coalition of Chiefs agreed: “We are the leaders in environmental protection. If you meet with the Canadians who run the oil and gas sector, you'll see that they are just like you. They are concerned about the environment, about safety, about integrity. They'll do whatever they can to protect our country.”[23]

Canada produces approximately 1.6% of total world greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Oil and gas in Canada produces about 0.3% of global GHG emissions. The oil and gas sector estimates more than $24 billion of private sector investments in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and other technologies to reduce GHGs and improve energy efficiencies on the road to net-zero.

The Canadian Fuels Association highlighted the way Canada’s oil and gas sector workers are crucial drivers for continued technological advancement, and the expansion of renewable and alternative energy development and electrification: “the strength of our sector lies in our workers and their expertise to innovate the fuels of tomorrow - all while adapting our current infrastructure. With over a century of innovation, leveraging the knowledge of our workers will be critical for achieving Canada's climate goals.”[24]

The reality is that Canada is a world leader in innovation and clean technology, and the oil and gas sector currently invests in research and development of clean technology more than all other industries in the Canadian economy - combined. ATCO outlined the necessity of technology and Canada’s oil and gas sector to meet environmental aspirations: “Any credible pathway to net zero includes continued innovation and the use of natural gas and oil.”[25] Canada’s natural resources sector is well positioned to meet the steady and increasing demand for oil and gas while simultaneously meeting the demand for cleaner energy sources.

The costly coalition and Bloc Quebecois’ plans for a “Just Transition” outlined in the Committee’s final report fail to recognize this reality. Their plans to accelerate a phase out of Canadian oil and natural gas is short sighted and detrimental to the very objectives they claim to want to accomplish; they cannot and do not account for where equivalent private sector investment in technology and innovation will come from as their punitive policies hinder and shut down oil and gas in Canada.

Canada already produces natural gas with the lowest GHG emissions intensity in the world, ahead of Norway, the U.S., and Qatar.[26] While Canadian oil sands production has increased, emissions have steadily decreased. Research Analyst Kevin Birn noted in his report that by 2030, upstream GHG’s will be 30% lower than 2009 levels.[27]

While Liberal, NDP, Bloc and Green Members of Parliament continue to attack and attempt to dismantle the sector, the industry has re-evaluated, pivoted, and remains the gold standard for the most environmentally and socially responsible energy development around the world.

The entire Canadian energy sector - oil and gas, oil sands, or nuclear – is aligned towards their goal to achieve net-zero, and the industry is leading the way despite federal roadblocks to hamper the part of the sector that generates the revenue for technological advancement. Chad Richards, of the Nuclear Innovation Institute, stated that Nuclear must be part of the net-zero equation, and testified: “When it comes to creating a fair and equitable energy transformation as part of these efforts, Canada's nuclear sector has many clear benefits.”[28]

Current federal policies and intentions clearly cherry-pick winners and losers in the energy sector based on ideological preferences instead of attracting and expanding private sector development, and creating an investment environment that can compete with the United States in a post Inflation Reduction Act era.

Russia’s attack on Ukraine has also put the importance of energy supply and security in sharp focus. Dr. Keefer and Dan McTeague highlighted that the attack has created an increased and urgent demand for sustainable energy, and Canada could find itself in a similar situation as the richest industrialized countries in Europe[29] as current federal government policies have made Canada’s energy sector vulnerable to supply chain complications and investor leakage to more attractive economic jurisdictions.

Last year, the Royal Bank of Canada reported that Canadian oil sands and conventional producers could increase production by up to 500,000 barrels per day from 2021 levels, still reach its goals, and potentially generate a net benefit of $10.5 billion annually.[30]

The federal government must recognize geopolitical realities and the necessity of stable, reliable, accessible, predictable, affordable energy for Canada’s communities, economy and sovereignty – and accelerate and secure exports within North America and to allies around the world. Canada should maintain and expand its place at the top of the energy producing nations, to supply growing global energy demand while renewable and alternative energy and other fuels of the future are in development, but not yet reliable for domestic or global needs. Canada can aim to meet net-zero targets while continuing to depend on the benefits of the sector that is leading the world in innovation and clean technology investment.  An evidence-based policy approach in Canada would recognize that, in fact, that’s the only feasible way to maintain Canadian energy needs, grow Canada’s economy, and meet environmental goals while other options are developed.

The Future – Technology not Taxes; Transformation, not Transition

Conservatives reject the idea that a government-led ‘transition’ is a good choice for Canadians, because Canadian energy is already a world leader in industry-led technological advancement and environmental performance, and because the so-called government-led “Just Transition” model has never worked whenever it has been tried.

Canada has an energy future, where alternative energy like wind, tidal, and hydrogen power is common. In fact, the sector was already on its way: projects like the Keystone XL pipeline expansion could have carried hydrogen from Alberta to markets in the United States. Sustainable Marine’s Pempa’q Tidal Energy Project provided electricity to Nova Scotia’s power grid until March 2023. Under the Liberals, both projects are dead.

Witnesses noted the opportunity for Canada, in both hydrogen adoption and renewable energy on farms, which doubled from 2016 to 2021.[31]

Canada is already a world leader in the adoption of alternative energy. According to a brief submitted by Eco Canada: “market opportunities [for alternative energy] also exist within Canada. On average, 1 in 10 enterprises used cleantech goods and services from 2015 to 2017. A few industries such as Pipeline transportation (38%), Utilities (36%), Rail and water transportation (22%), and Oil and gas extraction (20%) reported relatively high rates of cleantech use.”[32]

This is a fundamental point that the final Committee report ignores. Canada is a leader in energy transformation. Alberta itself was the first jurisdiction in North America to impose a major industrial emitters levy that targeted the funds to innovation and clean technology; has the largest clean technology carbon capture project in the world; is home to the first facility in the world that turned municipal trash into biofuel; and had the world’s first 100% renewable LRT, and the oldest and largest commercial solar and wind farms in Canada.

Witnesses recognized that government mandated transitions are never done well. Dr. Sandeep Pai with the Global Just Transition even stated: “Globally—including, to some degree, Canada—we have never done good just transitions.”[33] It is of course interesting to note that throughout Canada’s 156 year history, communities have evolved from whale oil lamps and wood-burning stoves to nuclear powered electricity, in-floor heating, gas-powered barbeques – all without a big, central government forcing it, because demand and energy evolution created it. When leading researchers recognize that this so-called ‘Just Transition’ plan has never worked, Conservatives suggest that a government-orchestrated transition is the problem, especially when the most recent Coal Transition experiment was an unmitigated failure, and there is no concrete indication how or that the results would be any different. Instead, Canada should continue the path already started by the private sector, and support the continued energy transformation for which Canada is world-renowned as a spearheading pioneer and consistent leader.

A forced transition threatens the fundamental bedrock of Canadian society – and this was highlighted by witnesses.

The Grain Growers of Canada noted that “a just transition must ensure that the cost of producing the food we all eat does not rise dramatically… Extra costs [like the carbon tax] added to the fuels that farmers have no choice but use simply isn’t a viable option.”[34]

Dale Swampy highlighted how the risks are worse for Indigenous communities: “I want to end by pointing out the high costs of a poorly planned energy transition and the crisis we now face in First Nations. Many of our communities rely on diesel generation. People have to drive for hours to get to doctor’s appointments or a grocery store. A lot of people aren't on the grid, and even those who are don't have the electricity capacity to add charging stations in garages they don't have. You won't find any electric cars on the rez.”[35]

Witnesses such as Dan McTeague, Dr. Christopher Keefer, and Shannon Joseph highlighted the importance of energy security and Canada’s possibility to play a role in displacing higher emitting forms of energy – but also, warned of the dangers of shutting down energy production in Canada before the technology is ready and the significant risk of energy poverty for all Canadians.[36]

Canadians for Affordable Energy’s Dan McTeague highlighted that the rising prices for gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and electricity should give Canadians pause about the impacts of a transition. He argued that government policies have discouraged the development of oil and gas infrastructure and that “high-cost renewables” have contributed to higher electricity bills, and that the federal government should adopt “practical and pragmatic” policies, instead of accelerating the shutdown of existing energy sources. This testimony is not found anywhere in the Committee’s final report because it’s clear that the Liberal government and their costly “Just Transition” Bloc and NDP coalition partners have no interest in evidence and affordability as key underpinnings for their plans. Their priority is their all-consuming ideological goal to shut down Canada’s oil and gas sector.

Dr. Christopher Keefer noted that the impacts of a forced transition are well documented: “There are lots of fairy tales about grid scale batteries and other solutions, but the richest industrialized country in Europe who [has] embarked the most on this and spent $550 billion on this process relied on coal for the dominant source of electricity in 2021 and Russian gas now.  Canada could find itself in the same situation.”[37]

Conservatives believe that supporting the development of innovative, emissions-reducing technology in Canada is a better way. The Liberals, NDP, Bloc, and their report, does not acknowledge this as a viable option, and instead, these three parties prefer to ignore the concerns raised by witnesses and will forge ahead with their reckless “Just Transition” plan.

In Conclusion

The Liberals’ Just Transition must be taken in context of all the cost-increasing measures they impose on Canadians – their carbon tax, their second carbon tax (fuel regulations), methane regulations, electricity standards – the list goes on. These policies will increase the cost of living for every Canadian and kill Canadian jobs and communities; they will risk the economic activity, jobs, and tax revenue to all levels of government of Canada’s largest sector; and they will jeopardize the reliable, affordable, and abundant energy that Canadians need every day.

This report attacks Canada’s energy industry, rather than examining practical ways and timelines for grid decarbonization without jeopardizing the economy and Canadians’ standard of living. Instead of focusing on actual solutions, this report is designed to prop up the Liberal political approach and silence any dissenting opinions.

Canadians in communities like Hannah, AB, Estevan and Coronach, SK, or Belledune, NB, know that talk is cheap, and NDP-Liberal action destroys their communities.

For the reasons above, Conservatives reject the final product of Creating a Fair and Equitable Canadian Energy Transformation, and recommend that the Liberal government cancel all plans to implement a “Just Transition” – or a falsely and cynically named “Sustainable Jobs”, or any other plan designed to kill Canadian communities, jobs, businesses, and Canada’s energy sector.


[1] Government of Canada, “Briefing Package for the Minister of Natural Resources to appear before the House of Commons Standing Committee on Natural Resources (RNNR) for its study on Creating a Fair and Equitable Canadian Energy Transformation”, and Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development, Report 1—Just Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy.

[2] RNNR, Evidence, 22 September 2022 (Government of Alberta, read into the record).

[3] Government of Canada, Interim Sustainable Jobs Plan.

[4] RNNR, Written Brief, 28 July 2022 (ATCO Ltd.).

[5] RNNR, Evidence, 4 May 2022 (Chief Sharleen Gale, First Nations Major Projects Coalition).

[6] RNNR, Written Brief, 22 June 2022 (Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[7] RNNR, Evidence, 9 May 2022 (Ms. Shannon Joseph, Vice-President, Government Relations and Indigenous Affairs, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[8] RNNR, Evidence, 30 May 2022 (Dale Swampy, President, National Coalition of Chiefs). 

[9] RNNR, Written Brief, 22 June 2022 (Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[10] RNNR, Written Brief, 25 October 2022 (Canadian Fuels Association).

[11] RNNR, Written Brief, 28 July 2022 (ATCO Ltd.).

[12] RNNR, Evidence, 30 May 2022 (Chief Delbert Wapass, Board Member, Indian Resource Council Inc.).

[13] RNNR, Evidence, 9 May 2022 (Ms. Shannon Joseph, Vice-President, Government Relations and Indigenous Affairs, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[14] Ibid.

[15] RNNR, Written Brief, 22 June 2022 (Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[16] RNNR, Evidence, 30 May 2022 (Mr. Steve Saddleback, Director, national Energy Business Centre of Excellence, Indian Resource Council Inc.).:

[17] RNNR, Evidence, 9 May 2022 (Ms. Shannon Joseph, Vice-President, Government Relations and Indigenous Affairs, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[18] Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development, Report 1—Just Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy.

[19] RNNR, Evidence, 27 April 2022 (Mr. Jamie Kirkpatrick, Program Manager, Blue Green Canada).

[20] RNNR, Evidence, 27 April 2022 (Mr. Roy Milne, President (Retired), Local 1595, United Steelworkers).

[21] RNNR, Evidence, 27 April 2022 (Mr. Gil McGowan, President, Alberta Federation of Labour).

[22] RNNR, Evidence, 9 May 2022 (Ms. Shannon Joseph, Vice-President, Government Relations and Indigenous Affairs, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[23] RNNR, Evidence, 30 May 2022 (Dale Swampy, President, National Coalition of Chiefs). 

[24] RNNR, Written Brief, 25 October 2022 (Canadian Fuels Association).

[25] RNNR, Written Brief, 28 July 2022 (ATCO Ltd.).

[26] Canadian Energy Centre, “Why Canadian LNG will have the world’s lowest emissions intensity.”

[27] S&P Global, “By 2030, Upstream Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of the Canadian Oil Sands to be 30 Percent Lower than 2009 Levels.

[28] RNNR, Evidence, 25 April 2022 (Mr. Chad Richards, Director, New Nuclear and Net Zero Partnerships, Nuclear Innovation Institute).

[29] RNNR, Evidence, 25 April 2022 (Dr. Christopher Keefer, President, Canadians for Nuclear Energy); and RNNR, Evidence, 9 May 2022 (Hon. Dan McTeague, President, Canadians for Affordable Energy).

[30] RBC, The New Climate Bargain.

[31] RNNR, Evidence, 1 June 2022 (Mr. Branden Leslie, Manager, Policy and Government Relations, Grain Growers of Canada).

[32] RNNR, Written Brief, 16 May 2022 (Environmental Careers Organization of Canada).

[33] RNNR, Evidence, 2 May 2022 (Dr. Sandeep Pai, Senior Research Lead, Global Just Transition Network, Center for Strategic and International Studies).

[34] RNNR, Evidence, 1 June 2022 (Mr. Branden Leslie, Manager, Policy and Government Relations, Grain Growers of Canada).

[35] RNNR, Evidence, 30 May 2022 (Dale Swampy, President, National Coalition of Chiefs). 

[36] RNNR, Evidence, 25 April 2022 (Dr. Christopher Keefer, President, Canadians for Nuclear Energy); and RNNR, Evidence, 9 May 2022 (Hon. Dan McTeague, President, Canadians for Affordable Energy); and RNNR, Evidence, 9 May 2022 (Ms. Shannon Joseph, Vice-President, Government Relations and Indigenous Affairs, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers).

[37] RNNR, Evidence, 25 April 2022 (Dr. Christopher Keefer, President, Canadians for Nuclear Energy).